Arthroscopy is a process in which, problems in the internal regions of the joints are diagnosed and treated.This procedure is carried out with the help of a tiny camera called the arthroscope which enables the visualisation of the internal regions ,as it is connected to a monitor or screen. This procedure is also known as button-hole surgery or key-hole surgery. This is minimally invasive surgical method, practised now-a-days very successfully. Most of the surgeons prefer this kind of surgical method in most of the patients.
Arthroscopy and joints
Arthroscopic surgery can be used for the treatment of any joint related issues such as knee joints, hip joints, shoulder, ankle , elbow and wrist joints.
knee arthroscopy is considered when there are problems related to knee such as torn or damaged cartilages , knee cap displacement and inflamed synovium lining of the knee joint. Other knee conditions include the ACL or PCL tears.
Hip arthroscopy is currently used in the treatment of hip conditions such as Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) and associated labral tears and cartilage abnormalities.
Shoulder arthroscopy is being used in the treatment of shoulder conditions also such as rotator cuff tear, impingement syndrome, frozen shoulder and shoulder instability.
Ankle arthroscopy is currently used in the treatment of ankle conditions such as impingement syndrome and ankle instability.
Elbow arthroscopy is used in the treatment of conditions such as the loose bodies and bone spurs in the elbow joint, osteochondritis dissecans and tennis elbow.
Wrist arthroscopies are also carried out for problems associated with wrist.
To confirm the need of an arthroscopic surgery
To diagnose the need for a arthroscopic surgery, a physician performs physical examination of the joints. The physician checks for the pain and range of motion of the joints. Arthroscope itself can be used to diagnose the damage in the joint.Other imaging techniques such as X-rays , CT Scans or the MRI of the joints are taken.
What happens during the procedure?
During the procedure the surgeon makes a small incision on the affected joint , and inserts the arthroscope. The arthroscope, being connected to monitor enables the clear view of the damage that has caused to the joints. Depending on the severity of the damage , the surgeons decide whether to proceed further or not. If the surgeon decides to proceed , few more small incisions are made to insert the surgical instruments that are used to fix or remove the damaged tissues from the joints. The surgical instruments such as the manual cutters,rivets or anchors ,powered shavers, burrs or radiofrequency probes are inserted. With the help of shavers the surgeon cuts the torn cartilages and labrum, during hip arthroscopy . It also helps to remove the bump of bone which cause the wearing down of the labrum and cartilages. During ankle arthroscopy loose bodies and bone spurs are removed from the ankle joint.Once the procedure is completed the incisions are stitched together. The whole procedure is carried out under anesthesia. Local, regional, or general anesthesia can be given. Recovery process is usually fast in case of minor arthroscopy of the knee. The process does not require hospitalization, as the procedure only takes one to two hours of time.