Sometimes immense force is exerted on a bone and as a result it breaks. This breakage of bone is called a fracture. These fractures result in pain and function of the bone is lost .
HOW ARE BONE FRACTURES CAUSED?
Bone fractures are caused due to many reasons. Some of them are listed below.
- Traumatic incidents such as accidents
- People suffering from the condition osteoporosis
- Cancer that causes bone to break or make them fragile.
- Injuries from falls or sport injuries
TYPES OF BONE FRACTURES
Simple fractures or closed fractures are the ones which do not penetrate the skin even though they are inside the body.
Compound fractures or open fractures, are the ones which penetrate the skin causing the bones to be exposed.
Comminuted fractures : These are severe fractures . In these fractures, the bones are broken into into several smaller pieces.
Greenstick fractures are the fractures seen only in children. In these fractures , only one side of the bone is broken.
Avulsion fractures are the fractures in which only small portion of the bones are broken . This can occur due to overexertion of muscles or by traumatic pulling that had occurred during an accident.
Transverse fractures are the fractures formed as a result of a force applied at a right angle to the bone.
Oblique fractures are the slanted fractures . These fractures occur when force is applied at any angle other than a right angle to the bone.
Do I have a bone fracture?
Some of the symptoms associated with bone fracture are the following.
•Broken skin with bone protruding
What tests are required to confirm a bone fracture?
A bone fracture is confirmed after the physical examination of the affected part by the surgeon. The surgeon assesses the mobility of the affected region. The surgeon then prescribes X-ray examination of the affected region . After the visualization of the X-ray reports, he confirms whether the bone is broken or not. Other imaging techniques such as MRI and CT scan are also utilized for this purpose.
How can a bone fracture be treated?
As soon as a person get injured, first aid can be provided. Some steps that can be followed as first aid include:
Give support to the broken area.
The affected region should not be moved. This prevents further damage of the affected bone.
If the fracture is an open fracture, cover the wound with a clean cloth.
Seek medical help as soon as possible.
Some of the patients require only non-surgical treatment. First the doctor will try to reduce the fracture by putting them back to their normal place. This is done under general anaesthesia. Some fractures such as closed fractures can be treated using a cast or a brace, or by using traction.
In some fractures, the patients are prescribed painkillers and are advised to limit the activity with the affected part until the fracture heals.
Depending on the type and severity of the fracture the doctor might suggest the need for a surgery. During the surgery , the broken bones are fixed using metal rods or screws and metal plates , and the skin is stitched together. A cast or brace is also used to protect the bones. In some cases these metal rods and screws are used as externally.